IBM Security announced the results of its annual study examining the financial impact of data breaches on organisations.
According to the report, the cost of a data breach has risen 12 per cent over the past five years and now costs USD 3.92 million on average. These rising expenses are representative of the multiyear financial impact of breaches, increased regulation and the complex process of resolving criminal attacks.
The financial consequences of a data breach can be particularly acute for small and midsize businesses. In the study, companies with less than 500 employees suffered losses of more than USD 2.5 million on average – a potentially crippling amount for small businesses, which typically earn USD 50 million or less in annual revenue.
For the first time this year, the report also examined the longtail financial impact of a data breach, finding that the effects of a data breach are felt for years. While an average of 67 per cent of data breach costs was realised within the first year after a breach, 22 per cent accrued in the second year and another 11 per cent accumulated more than two years after a breach. The longtail costs were higher in the second and third years for organisations in highly-regulated environments, such as healthcare, financial services, energy and pharmaceuticals.
“Cybercrime represents big money for cybercriminals, and unfortunately that equates to significant losses for businesses,” said Wendi Whitmore, Global Lead for IBM X-Force Incident Response and Intelligence Services. “With organisations facing the loss or theft of over 11.7 billion records in the past three years alone, companies need to be aware of the full financial impact that a data breach can have on their bottom line –and focus on how they can reduce these costs.”
Sponsored by IBM Security and conducted by the Ponemon Institute, the annual Cost of a Data Breach Report is based on in-depth interviews with more than 500 companies around the world that suffered a breach over the past year. The analysis takes into account hundreds of cost factors including legal, regulatory and technical activities to loss of brand equity, customers, and employee productivity. Some of the top findings from this year’s report include:
- Malicious Breaches – Most Common, Most Expensive: Over 50 per cent of data breaches in the study resulted from malicious cyberattacks and cost companies USD 1 million more on average than those originating from accidental causes.
- “Mega Breaches” Lead to Mega Losses: While less common, breaches of more than 1 million records cost companies a projected USD 42 million in losses; and those of 50 million records are projected to cost companies USD 388 million.
- Practice Makes Perfect: Companies with an incident response team that also extensively tested their incident response plan experienced USD 1.23 million less in data breach costs on average than those that had neither measure in place.
- The US Breaches Cost Double: The average cost of a breach in the U.S. is USD 8.19 million, more than double the worldwide average.
- Healthcare Breaches Cost the Most: For the 9th year in a row, healthcare organisations had the highest cost of a breach – nearly USD 6.5 million on average (over 60 per cent more than other industries in the study).
Malicious Breaches Pose a Growing Threat; Accidental Breaches Still Common
The study found that data breaches which originated from a malicious cyberattack were not only the most common root cause of a breach but also the most expensive.
Malicious data breaches cost companies in the study USD 4.45 million on average – over USD 1 million more than those originating from accidental causes such as system glitch and human error. These breaches are a growing threat, as the percentage of malicious or criminal attacks as the root cause of data breaches in the report crept up from 42 per cent to 51 per cent over the past six years of the study (a 21 per cent increase).
That said, inadvertent breaches from human error and system glitches were still the cause for nearly half (49 per cent) of the data breaches in the report, costing companies USD 3.50 and USD 3.24 million respectively. These breaches from human and machine error represent an opportunity for improvement, which can be addressed through security awareness training for staff, technology investments, and testing services to identify accidental breaches early on. One particular area of concern is the misconfiguration of cloud servers, which contributed to the exposure of 990 million records in 2018, representing 43 per cent of all lost records for the year according to the IBM X-Force Threat Intelligence Index.
Breach Response Remains Biggest Cost Saver
For the past 14 years, the Ponemon Institute has examined factors that increase or reduce the cost of a breach and has found that the speed and efficiency at which a company responds to a breach has a significant impact on the overall cost.
This year’s report found that the average lifecycle of a breach was 279 days with companies taking 206 days to first identify a breach after it occurs and an additional 73 days to contain the breach. However, companies in the study who were able to detect and contain a breach in less than 200 days spent USD 1.2 million less on the total cost of a breach.
A focus on incident response can help reduce the time it takes companies to respond, and the study found that these measures also had a direct correlation with overall costs. Having an incident response team in place and extensive testing of incident response plans were two of the top three greatest cost-saving factors examined in the study. Companies that had both of these measures in place had USD 1.23 million less total costs for a data breach on average than those that had neither measure in place (USD 3.51 million vs USD 4.74 million).
Additional factors impacting the cost of a breach for companies in the study included:
- Number of compromised records: Data breaches cost companies around USD 150 per record that was lost or stolen.
- Companies that fully deployed security automation technologies experienced around half the cost of a breach (USD 2.65 million average) compared to those that did not have these technologies deployed (USD 5.16 million average).
- Extensive use of encryption was also a top cost-saving factor, reducing the total cost of a breach by USD 360,000.
- Breaches originating from a third party – such as a partner or supplier – cost companies USD 370,000 more than average, emphasising the need for companies to closely vet the security of the companies they do business with, align security standards, and actively monitor third-party access.
Regional and Industry Trends
The study also examined the cost of data breaches in different industries and regions, finding that data breaches in the US are vastly more expensive – costing USD 8.19 million, or more than double the average for worldwide companies in the study. Costs for data breaches in the US increased by 130 per cent over the past 14 years of the study; up from USD 3.54 million in the 2006 study.
Additionally, organisations in the Middle East reported the highest average number of breached records with nearly 40,000 breached records per incident (compared to the global average of around 25,500.)
For the 9th year in a row, healthcare organisations in the study had the highest costs associated with data breaches. The average cost of a breach in the healthcare industry was nearly USD 6.5 million – over 60 per cent higher than the cross-industry average.
To read the details of this report, click here.